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Planet Venus seen from Earth

Lucifer (/ˈlsɪfər/ LEW-si-fər; "light-bringer") is a Latin name for the planet Venus as the morning star in the ancient Roman era, and is often used for mythological and religious figures associated with the planet. Due to the unique movements and discontinuous appearances of Venus in the sky, mythology surrounding these figures often involved a fall from the heavens to earth or the underworld. Interpretations of a similar term in the Hebrew Bible, translated in the King James Version as "Lucifer", led to a Christian tradition of applying the name Lucifer and its associated stories of a fall from heaven to Satan. Most modern scholarship regards these interpretations as questionable, and translates the term in the relevant Bible passage (Isaiah 14:12) as "morning star" or "shining one" rather than as a proper name, "Lucifer".[1]

As a name for the devil, the more common meaning in English, "Lucifer" is the rendering of the Hebrew word הֵילֵל‎ (transliteration: hêylêl; pronunciation: hay-lale)[2] in Isaiah (Isaiah 14:12) given in the King James Version of the Bible. The translators of this version took the word from the Latin Vulgate,[3] which translated הֵילֵל by the Latin word lucifer (uncapitalized),[4][5] meaning "the morning star, the planet Venus", or, as an adjective, "light-bringing".[6]

As a name for the morning star, "Lucifer" is a proper name and is capitalized in English. In Greco-Roman civilization the morning star was often personified and considered a god[7] and in some versions considered a son of Aurora (the Dawn).[8]

Fall from heaven[edit]

The motif of a heavenly being striving for the highest seat of heaven only to be cast down to the underworld has its origins in the motions of the planet Venus, known as the morning star.

The Sumerian goddess Inanna (Babylonian Ishtar) is associated with the planet Venus.[9][10][11][12][13] Inanna's actions in several of her myths, including Inanna and Shukaletuda and Inanna's Descent into the Underworld appear to parallel the motion of Venus as it progresses through its synodic cycle. For example, in Inanna's Descent to the Underworld, Inanna is able to descend into the netherworld, where she is killed, and then resurrected three days later to return to the heavens. The three-day disappearance of Inanna refers to the three-day planetary disappearance of Venus between its appearance as a morning and evening star.[14]

A similar theme is present in the Babylonian myth of Etana. The Jewish Encyclopedia comments:

"The brilliancy of the morning star, which eclipses all other stars, but is not seen during the night, may easily have given rise to a myth such as was told of Ethana and Zu: he was led by his pride to strive for the highest seat among the star-gods on the northern mountain of the gods ... but was hurled down by the supreme ruler of the Babylonian Olympus."[15]

The fall from heaven motif also has a parallel in Canaanite mythology. In ancient Canaanite religion, the morning star is personified as the god Attar, who attempted to occupy the throne of Ba'al and, finding he was unable to do so, descended and ruled the underworld.[16][17] The original myth may have been about a lesser god Helel trying to dethrone the Canaanite high god El who lived on a mountain to the north.[18][9] Hermann Gunkel's reconstruction of the myth told of a mighty warrior called Hêlal, whose ambition was to ascend higher than all the other stellar divinities, but who had to descend to the depths; it thus portrayed as a battle the process by which the bright morning star fails to reach the highest point in the sky before being faded out by the rising sun.[19] However, the Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible argues that no evidence has been found of any Canaanite myth or imagery of a god being forcibly thrown from heaven, as in the Book of Isaiah (see below). It argues that the closest parallels with Isaiah's description of the king of Babylon as a fallen morning star cast down from heaven are to be found not in Canaanite myths but in traditional ideas of the Jewish people, echoed in the Biblical account of the fall of Adam and Eve, cast out of God's presence for wishing to be as God, and the picture in Psalm 82 of the "gods" and "sons of the Most High" destined to die and fall.[20] This Jewish tradition has echoes also in Jewish pseudepigrapha such as 2 Enoch and the Life of Adam and Eve.[20][15][21] The Life of Adam and Eve, in turn, shaped the idea of Iblis in the Quran.[22]

The Greek myth of Phaethon, a personification of the planet Jupiter,[23] follows a similar pattern.[19]

In classical mythology[edit]

Lucifer (the morning star) represented as a winged child pouring light from a jar. Engraving by G.H. Frezza, 1704

In classical mythology, Lucifer ("light-bringer" in Latin) was the name of the planet Venus, though it was often personified as a male figure bearing a torch. The Greek name for this planet was variously Phosphoros (also meaning "light-bringer") or Heosphoros (meaning "dawn-bringer").[24] Lucifer was said to be "the fabled son of Aurora[25] and Cephalus, and father of Ceyx". He was often presented in poetry as heralding the dawn.[24]

The Latin word corresponding to Greek "Phosphoros" is "Lucifer". It is used in its astronomical sense both in prose[26] and poetry.[27] Poets sometimes personify the star, placing it in a mythological context.[28]

Lucifer's mother Aurora is cognate to the Vedic goddess Ushas, Lithuanian goddess Aušrinė, and Greek Eos, all three of whom are also goddesses of the dawn. All four are considered derivatives of the Proto-Indo-European stem *h₂ewsṓs[29] (later *Ausṓs), "dawn", a stem that also gave rise to Proto-Germanic *Austrō, Old Germanic *Ōstara and Old English Ēostre / Ēastre. This agreement leads to the reconstruction of a Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess.[30]

The second century Roman mythographer Pseudo-Hyginus said of the planet:[31]

"The fourth star is that of Venus, Luciferus by name. Some say it is Juno's. In many tales it is recorded that it is called Hesperus, too. It seems to be the largest of all stars. Some have said it represents the son of Aurora and Cephalus, who surpassed many in beauty, so that he even vied with Venus, and, as Eratosthenes says, for this reason it is called the star of Venus. It is visible both at dawn and sunset, and so properly has been called both Luciferus and Hesperus."

Ovid, in his first century epic Metamorphoses, describes Lucifer as ordering the heavens:[32]

"Aurora, watchful in the reddening dawn, threw wide her crimson doors and rose-filled halls; the Stellae took flight, in marshaled order set by Lucifer who left his station last."

The Latin poet Ovid, speaking of Phosphorus and Hesperus (the Evening Star, the evening appearance of the planet Venus) as identical, makes him the father of Daedalion.[33] Ovid also makes him the father of Ceyx,[34][35] while the Latin grammarian Servius makes him the father of the Hesperides or of Hesperis.[36]

In the classical Roman period, Lucifer was not typically regarded as a deity and had few, if any, myths,[24] though the planet was associated with various deities and often poetically personified. Cicero pointed out that "You say that Sol the Sun and Luna the Moon are deities, and the Greeks identify the former with Apollo and the latter with Diana. But if Luna (the Moon) is a goddess, then Lucifer (the Morning-Star) also and the rest of the Wandering Stars (Stellae Errantes) will have to be counted gods; and if so, then the Fixed Stars (Stellae Inerrantes) as well."[37]

In Christianity[edit]

Background[edit]

In the Book of Isaiah, chapter 14, the King of Babylon is condemned in a prophetic vision by the prophet Isaiah and is called הֵילֵל בֶּן-שָׁחַר (Helel ben Shachar, Hebrew for "shining one, son of the morning").[20] who is addressed as הילל בן שחר (Hêlêl ben Šāḥar),[38][39][40][41][42] The title "Helel ben Shahar" refers to the planet Venus as the morning star, and that is how the Hebrew word is usually interpreted.[1][43] The Hebrew word transliterated as Hêlêl[44] or Heylel (pron. as Hay-LALE),[45] occurs only once in the Hebrew Bible.[44] The Septuagint renders הֵילֵל in Greek as Ἑωσφόρος [46][47][48][49][50] (heōsphoros),[51][52][53] "bringer of dawn", the Ancient Greek name for the morning star.[54] According to the King James Bible-based Strong's Concordance, the original Hebrew word means "shining one, light-bearer", and the translation given in the King James text is the Latin name for the planet Venus, "Lucifer".[45]

However, the translation of הֵילֵל as "Lucifer" has been abandoned in modern English translations of Isaiah 14:12. Present-day translations render הֵילֵל as "morning star" (New International Version, New Century Version, New American Standard Bible, Good News Translation, Holman Christian Standard Bible, Contemporary English Version, Common English Bible, Complete Jewish Bible), "daystar" (New Jerusalem Bible, The Message), "Day Star" (New Revised Standard Version, English Standard Version), "shining one" (New Life Version, New World Translation, JPS Tanakh), or "shining star" (New Living Translation).

In a modern translation from the original Hebrew, the passage in which the phrase "Lucifer" or "morning star" occurs begins with the statement: "On the day the Lord gives you relief from your suffering and turmoil and from the harsh labour forced on you, you will take up this taunt against the king of Babylon: How the oppressor has come to an end! How his fury has ended!"[55] After describing the death of the king, the taunt continues:

"How you have fallen from heaven, morning star, son of the dawn! You have been cast down to the earth, you who once laid low the nations! You said in your heart, 'I will ascend to the heavens; I will raise my throne above the stars of God; I will sit enthroned on the mount of assembly, on the utmost heights of Mount Zaphon. I will ascend above the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High.' But you are brought down to the realm of the dead, to the depths of the pit. Those who see you stare at you, they ponder your fate: 'Is this the man who shook the earth and made kingdoms tremble, the man who made the world a wilderness, who overthrew its cities and would not let his captives go home-'"[56]

J. Carl Laney has pointed out that in the final verses here quoted, the king of Babylon is described not as a god or an angel but as a man; and that man may have been not Nebuchadnezzar II, but rather his son, Belshazzar. Nebuchadnezzar was gripped by a spiritual fervor to build a temple to the moon god Sin (possibly analogous with Hubal,[citation needed] the primary god of pre-Islamic Mecca), and his son ruled as regent. The Abrahamic scriptural texts could be interpreted as a weak usurping of true kingly power, and a taunt at the failed regency of Belshazzar.[57][58]

For the unnamed[59] "king of Babylon" a wide range of identifications have been proposed.[60] They include a Babylonian ruler of the prophet Isaiah's own time[60] the later Nebuchadnezzar II, under whom the Babylonian captivity of the Jews began,[61] or Nabonidus,[60][62] and the Assyrian kings Tiglath-Pileser, Sargon II and Sennacherib.[57][60][63] Verse 20 says that this king of Babylon will not be "joined with them [all the kings of the nations] in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, thou hast slain thy people; the seed of evil-doers shall not be named for ever", but rather be cast out of the grave, while "All the kings of the nations, all of them, sleep in glory, every one in his own house", pointing to Nebuchadnezzar II as a possible interpretation.[1][64] Herbert Wolf held that the "king of Babylon" was not a specific ruler but a generic representation of the whole line of rulers.[65]

Isaiah 14:12 became a source for the popular conception of the fallen angel motif[66] seen later in 1 Enoch 86–90 and 2 Enoch 29:3–4. Rabbinical Judaism has rejected any belief in rebel or fallen angels.[67] In the 11th century, the Pirqe de-Rabbi Eliezer illustrates the origin of the "fallen angel myth" by giving two accounts, one relates to the angel in the Garden of Eden who seduces Eve, and the other relates to the angels, the benei elohim who cohabit with the daughters of man (Genesis 6:1–4).[68] An association of Isaiah 14:12–18 with a personification of evil, called the devil developed outside of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism in pseudepigrapha and Christian writings,[69] particularly with the apocalypses.[70]

As Satan or the devil[edit]

Illustration of Lucifer in the first fully illustrated print edition of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. Woodcut for Inferno, canto 33. Pietro di Piasi, Venice, 1491.

Some Christian writers have applied the name "Lucifer" as used in the Book of Isaiah, and the motif of a heavenly being cast down to the earth, to Satan. Sigve K Tonstad argues that the New Testament War in Heaven theme of Revelation 12 (Revelation 12:7–9), in which the dragon "who is called the devil and Satan … was thrown down to the earth", was derived from the passage about the Babylonian king in Isaiah 14.[71] Origen (184/185 – 253/254) interpreted such Old Testament passages as being about manifestations of the Devil; but writing in Greek, not Latin, he did not identify the devil with the name "Lucifer".[72][73][74][75] Tertullian (c. 160 – c. 225), who wrote in Latin, also understood Isaiah 14:14 ("I will ascend above the tops of the clouds; I will make myself like the Most High") as spoken by the Devil,[76] but "Lucifer" is not among the numerous names and phrases he used to describe the devil.[77] Even at the time of the Latin writer Augustine of Hippo (354–430), "Lucifer" had not yet become a common name for the Devil.[72]

Some time later, the metaphor of the morning star that Isaiah 14:12 applied to a king of Babylon gave rise to the general use of the Latin word for "morning star", capitalized, as the original name of the devil before his fall from grace, linking Isaiah 14:12 with Luke 10 (Luke 10:18) ("I saw Satan fall like lightning from heaven") and interpreting the passage in Isaiah as an allegory of Satan's fall from heaven.[78][79]

As a result, "Lucifer has become a byword for Satan or the Devil in the church and in popular literature",[3] as in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, Joost van den Vondel's Lucifer, and John Milton's Paradise Lost.[53] However, unlike the English word, the Latin word was not used exclusively in this way and was applied to others also, including Jesus: the Latin (Vulgate) text of Revelation 22:16 (where English translations refer to Jesus as "the bright morning star") has stella matutina, not lucifer, but the term lucifer is applied to Jesus in the Easter Exultet and in a hymn by Hilary of Poitiers that contains the phrase: "Tu verus mundi lucifer" (You are the true light bringer of the world).[80]

Adherents of the King James Only movement and others who hold that Isaiah 14:12 does indeed refer to the devil have decried the modern translations.[81][82][83][84][85][86] An opposing view attributes to Origen the first identification of the "Lucifer" of Isaiah 14:12 with the devil and to Tertullian and Augustine of Hippo the spread of the story of Lucifer as fallen through pride, envy of God and jealousy of humans.[87]

However, the understanding of the morning star in Isaiah 14:12 as a metaphor referring to a king of Babylon continued also to exist among Christians. Theodoret of Cyrus (c. 393 – c. 457) wrote that Isaiah calls the king "morning star", not as being the star, but as having had the illusion of being it.[88] The same understanding is shown in Christian translations of the passage, which in English generally use "morning star" rather than treating the word as a proper name, "Lucifer". So too in other languages, such as French,[89] German,[90] Portuguese,[91] and Spanish.[92] Even the Vulgate text in Latin is printed with lower-case lucifer (morning star), not upper-case Lucifer (proper name).[5]

John Calvin said: "The exposition of this passage, which some have given, as if it referred to Satan, has arisen from ignorance: for the context plainly shows these statements must be understood in reference to the king of the Babylonians."[93] Martin Luther also considered it a gross error to refer this verse to the devil.[94]

Gustave Doré, illustration to Paradise Lost, book IX, 179–187: "... he [Satan] held on /His midnight search, where soonest he might finde /The Serpent: him fast sleeping soon he found ..."

Bogomilism[edit]

In the Bogomil and Cathar text Gospel of the secret supper, Lucifer is a glorified angel and the older brother of Jesus, but fell from heaven to establish his own kingdom and became the Demiurge. Therefore, he created the material world and trapped souls from heaven inside matter. Jesus descended to earth to free the captured souls.[95][96] In contrast to mainstream Christianity, the cross was denounced as a symbol of Lucifer and his instrument in an attempt to kill Jesus.[97]

Latter-day Saints[edit]

Lucifer is regarded within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as the pre-mortal name of the devil. Mormon theology teaches that in a heavenly council, Lucifer rebelled against the plan of God the Father and was subsequently cast out.[98] The Church’s scripture reads:

"And this we saw also, and bear record, that an angel of God who was in authority in the presence of God, who rebelled against the Only Begotten Son whom the Father loved and who was in the bosom of the Father, was thrust down from the presence of God and the Son, and was called Perdition, for the heavens wept over him—he was Lucifer, a son of the morning. And we beheld, and lo, he is fallen! is fallen, even a son of the morning! And while we were yet in the Spirit, the Lord commanded us that we should write the vision; for we beheld Satan, that old serpent, even the devil, who rebelled against God, and sought to take the kingdom of our God and his Christ—Wherefore, he maketh war with the saints of God, and encompasseth them round about."[99]

After becoming Satan by his fall, Lucifer "goeth up and down, to and fro in the earth, seeking to destroy the souls of men".[100] Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints consider Isaiah 14:12 to be referring to both the king of the Babylonians and the devil.[101][102]

Other uses[edit]

Other instances of lucifer in the Old Testament pseudepigrapha are related to the "star" Venus, in the Sibylline Oracles battle of the constellations (line 517) "Lucifer fought mounted on the back of Leo",[103] or the entirely rewritten Christian version of the Greek Apocalypse of Ezra 4:32 which has a reference to Lucifer as Antichrist.[104]

Isaiah 14:12 is not the only place where the Vulgate uses the word lucifer. It uses the same word four more times, in contexts where it clearly has no reference to a fallen angel: 2 Peter 1:19 (meaning "morning star"), Job 11:17 ("the light of the morning"), Job 38:32 ("the signs of the zodiac") and Psalms 110:3 ("the dawn").[105] Lucifer is not the only expression that the Vulgate uses to speak of the morning star: three times it uses stella matutina: Sirach 50:6 (referring to the actual morning star), and Revelation 2:28 (of uncertain reference) and 22:16 (referring to Jesus).

Indications that in Christian tradition the Latin word lucifer, unlike the English word, did not necessarily call a fallen angel to mind exist also outside the text of the Vulgate. Two bishops bore that name: Saint Lucifer of Cagliari, and Lucifer of Siena.

In Latin, the word is applied to John the Baptist and is used as a title of Jesus himself in several early Christian hymns. The morning hymn Lucis largitor splendide of Hilary contains the line: "Tu verus mundi lucifer" (you are the true light bringer of the world).[106] Some interpreted the mention of the morning star (lucifer) in Ambrose's hymn Aeterne rerum conditor as referring allegorically to Jesus and the mention of the cock, the herald of the day (praeco) in the same hymn as referring to John the Baptist.[107] Likewise, in the medieval hymn Christe qui lux es et dies, some manuscripts have the line "Lucifer lucem proferens".[108]

The Latin word lucifer is also used of Jesus in the Easter Proclamation prayer to God regarding the paschal candle: Flammas eius lucifer matutinus inveniat: ille, inquam, lucifer, qui nescit occasum. Christus Filius tuus, qui, regressus ab inferis, humano generi serenus illuxit, et vivit et regnat in saecula saeculorum ("May this flame be found still burning by the Morning Star: the one Morning Star who never sets, Christ your Son, who, coming back from death's domain, has shed his peaceful light on humanity, and lives and reigns for ever and ever"). In the works of Latin grammarians, Lucifer, like Daniel, was discussed as an example of a personal name.[109]

In Occultism[edit]

Anthroposophy[edit]

Rudolf Steiner's writings, which formed the basis for Anthroposophy, characterised Lucifer as a spiritual opposite to Ahriman, with Christ between the two forces, mediating a balanced path for humanity. Lucifer represents an intellectual, imaginative, delusional, otherworldly force which might be associated with visions, subjectivity, psychosis and fantasy. He associated Lucifer with the religious/philosophical cultures of Egypt, Rome and Greece. Steiner believed that Lucifer, as a supersensible Being, had incarnated in China about 3000 years before the birth of Christ.

Luciferianism[edit]

Luciferianism is a belief system that venerates the essential characteristics that are affixed to Lucifer. The tradition, influenced by Gnosticism, usually reveres Lucifer not as the devil, but as a liberator, a guardian or guiding spirit[110] or even the true god as opposed to Jehovah.[111]

In Anton LaVey's The Satanic Bible, Lucifer is one of the four crown princes of hell, particularly that of the East, the 'lord of the air', and is called the bringer of light, the morning star, intellectualism, and enlightenment.[112] The title 'lord of the air' is based upon Ephesians 2:2, which uses the phrase 'prince of the power of the air' to refer to the pagan god Zeus, but that phrase later became conflated with Satan.

Author Michael W. Ford has written on Lucifer as a "mask" of the adversary, a motivator and illuminating force of the mind and subconscious.[113]

In Freemasonry[edit]

Léo Taxil (1854–1907) claimed that Freemasonry is associated with worshipping Lucifer. In what is known as the Taxil hoax, he alleged that leading Freemason Albert Pike had addressed "The 23 Supreme Confederated Councils of the world" (an invention of Taxil), instructing them that Lucifer was God, and was in opposition to the evil god Adonai. Supporters of Freemasonry contend that, when Albert Pike and other Masonic scholars spoke about the "Luciferian path," or the "energies of Lucifer," they were referring to the Morning Star, the light bearer,[114] the search for light; the very antithesis of dark. Taxil promoted a book by Diana Vaughan (actually written by himself, as he later confessed publicly)[115] that purported to reveal a highly secret ruling body called the Palladium, which controlled the organization and had a satanic agenda. As described by Freemasonry Disclosed in 1897:

With frightening cynicism, the miserable person we shall not name here [Taxil] declared before an assembly especially convened for him that for twelve years he had prepared and carried out to the end the most sacrilegious of hoaxes. We have always been careful to publish special articles concerning Palladism and Diana Vaughan. We are now giving in this issue a complete list of these articles, which can now be considered as not having existed.[116]

Taxil's work and Pike's address continue to be quoted by anti-masonic groups.[117]

In Devil-Worship in France, Arthur Edward Waite compared Taxil's work to today's tabloid journalism, replete with logical and factual inconsistencies.

In Neopagan Witchcraft[edit]

In a collection of folklore and magical practices supposedly collected in Italy by Charles Godfrey Leland and published in his Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches, the figure of Lucifer is featured prominently as both the brother and consort of the goddess Diana, and father of Aradia, at the center of an alleged Italian witch-cult.[118][118] In Leland's mythology, Diana pursued her brother Lucifer across the sky as a cat pursues a mouse. According to Leland, after dividing herself into light and darkness:

"...Diana saw that the light was so beautiful, the light which was her other half, her brother Lucifer, she yearned for it with exceeding great desire. Wishing to receive the light again into her darkness, to swallow it up in rapture, in delight, she trembled with desire. This desire was the Dawn. But Lucifer, the light, fled from her, and would not yield to her wishes; he was the light which files into the most distant parts of heaven, the mouse which flies before the cat."[119]

Here, the motions of Diana and Lucifer once again mirror the celestial motions of the moon and Venus, respectively.[120] Though Leland's Lucifer is based on the classical personification of the planet Venus, he also incorporates elements from Christian tradition, as in the following passage:

"Diana greatly loved her brother Lucifer, the god of the Sun and of the Moon, the god of Light (Splendor), who was so proud of his beauty, and who for his pride was driven from Paradise."[119]

In the several modern Wiccan traditions based in part on Leland's work, the figure of Lucifer is usually either omitted or replaced as Diana's consort with either the Etruscan god Tagni, or Dianus (Janus, following the work of folklorist James Frazer in The Golden Bough).[118]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Isaiah Chapter 14". mechon-mamre.org. The Mamre Institute. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  2. ^ Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
  3. ^ a b Kohler, Dr. Kaufmann (2006). Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion with Special Reference to Dante's Divine Comedy. New York: The MacMillanCompagny. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-76616608-2. Lucifer, is taken from the Latin version, the Vulgate
  4. ^ "Latin Vulgate Bible: Isaiah 14". DRBO.org. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Vulgate: Isaiah Chapter 14" (in Latin). Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  6. ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, "A Latin Dictionary"". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  7. ^ Mike Dixon-Kennedy, Encyclopedia of Greco-Roman Mythology (ABC-CLIO 1998), p. 193 ISBN 9781576070949
  8. ^ William Smith, A Smaller Classical Dictionary of Biography, Mythology, and Geography, "Lucifer"
  9. ^ a b Gary V. Smith (30 August 2007). Isaiah 1–30. B&H Publishing Group. pp. 314–315. ISBN 978-0-80540115-8. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  10. ^ Marvin Alan Sweeney (1996). Isaiah 1–39. Eerdmans. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-80284100-1. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  11. ^ Cooley, Jeffrey L. (2008). "Inana and Šukaletuda: A Sumerian Astral Myth". KASKAL. 5: 161–172. ISSN 1971-8608.
  12. ^ Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-7141-1705-6.
  13. ^ Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea (1998), Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia, Daily Life, Greenwood, p. 203, ISBN 978-0313294976
  14. ^ Hostetter, Clyde (1991), Star Trek to Hawa-i'i, San Luis Obispo, California: Diamond Press, p. 53
  15. ^ a b "Lucifer". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  16. ^ John Day, Yahweh and the gods and goddesses of Canaan (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002. ISBN 0-82646830-6. ISBN 978-0-8264-6830-7), pp. 172–173
  17. ^ Gregory A. Boyd, God at War: The Bible & Spiritual Conflict (InterVarsity Press, 1997 ISBN 0-8308-1885-5. ISBN 978-0-8308-1885-3), pp. 159–160
  18. ^ Marvin H. Pope, ''El in the Ugaritic Texts''. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  19. ^ a b Gunkel, Hermann (2006) [Originally published in German in 1895]. "Isa 14:12–14 (pp. 89ff.)". Creation And Chaos in the Primeval Era And the Eschaton. A Religio-historical Study of Genesis 1 and Revelation 12. Contributor Heinrich Zimmern, foreword by Peter Machinist, translated by K. William Whitney Jr. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2804-0. page 90: "it is even more definitely certain that we are dealing with a native myth!"
  20. ^ a b c James D. G. Dunn; John William Rogerson (2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. p. 511. ISBN 978-0-80283711-0. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  21. ^ Schwartz, Howard (2004). Tree of souls: The mythology of Judaism. New York: OUP. p. 108. ISBN 0-19508679-1.
  22. ^ lberdina Houtman, Tamar Kadari, Marcel Poorthuis, Vered Tohar Religious Stories in Transformation: Conflict, Revision and Reception BRILL 2016 ISBN 978-9-004-33481-6 page 66
  23. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum, Project Gutenberg.
  24. ^ a b c "Lucifer" in Encyclopaedia Britannica]
  25. ^ Auffarth, Christoph; Stuckenbruck, Loren T., eds. (2004). The Fall of the Angels. Leiden: BRILL. p. 62. ISBN 978-9-00412668-8.
  26. ^ Cicero wrote: Stella Veneris, quae Φωσφόρος Graece, Latine dicitur Lucifer, cum antegreditur solem, cum subsequitur autem Hesperos; The star of Venus, called Φωσφόρος in Greek and Lucifer in Latin when it precedes, Hesperos when it follows the sun – De Natura Deorum 2, 20, 53.
    Pliny the Elder: Sidus appellatum Veneris … ante matutinum exoriens Luciferi nomen accipit … contra ab occasu refulgens nuncupatur Vesper (The star called Venus … when it rises in the morning is given the name Lucifer … but when it shines at sunset it is called Vesper) Natural History 2, 36
  27. ^ Virgil wrote:
    Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura
    carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent
    (Let us hasten, when first the Morning Star appears, to the cool pastures, while the day is new, while the grass is dewy) Georgics 3:324–325.
    And Lucan:
    Lucifer a Casia prospexit rupe diemque
    misit in Aegypton primo quoque sole calentem
    (The morning-star looked forth from Mount Casius and sent the daylight over Egypt, where even sunrise is hot) Lucan, Pharsalia, 10:434–435; English translation by J.D.Duff (Loeb Classical Library)
  28. ^ Ovid wrote:
    … vigil nitido patefecit ab ortu
    purpureas Aurora fores et plena rosarum
    atria: diffugiunt stellae, quarum agmina cogit
    Lucifer et caeli statione novissimus exit
    Aurora, awake in the glowing east, opens wide her bright doors, and her rose-filled courts. The stars, whose ranks are shepherded by Lucifer the morning star, vanish, and he, last of all, leaves his station in the sky – Metamorphoses 2.114–115; A. S. Kline's Version
    And Statius:
    Et iam Mygdoniis elata cubilibus alto
    impulerat caelo gelidas Aurora tenebras,
    rorantes excussa comas multumque sequenti
    sole rubens; illi roseus per nubila seras
    aduertit flammas alienumque aethera tardo
    Lucifer exit equo, donec pater igneus orbem
    impleat atque ipsi radios uetet esse sorori
    (And now Aurora rising from her Mygdonian couch had driven the cold darkness on from high in the heavens, shaking out her dewy hair, her face blushing red at the pursuing sun – from him roseate Lucifer averts his fires lingering in the clouds and with reluctant horse leaves the heavens no longer his, until the blazing father make full his orb and forbid even his sister her beams) Statius, Thebaid 2, 134–150; Translated by A. L. Ritchie and J. B. Hall in collaboration with M. J. Edwards Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 492.
  30. ^ Mallory, J.P.; Adams, D.Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2.
  31. ^ Astronomica 2. 4 (trans. Grant)
  32. ^ Metamorphoses 2. 112 ff (trans. Melville)
  33. ^ Metamorphoses, 11:295
  34. ^ Metamorphoses, 11:271
  35. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus. Bibliotheca, 1.7.4
  36. ^ "EOSPHORUS & HESPERUS (Eosphoros & Hesperos) - Greek Gods of the Morning & Evening Stars".
  37. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3. 19
  38. ^ "Isaiah 14 Biblos Interlinear Bible". Interlinearbible.org. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  39. ^ "Isaiah 14 Hebrew OT: Westminster Leningrad Codex". Wlc.hebrewtanakh.com. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  40. ^ "ASTRONOMY – Helel, Son of the Morning". The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  41. ^ "ASTRONOMY – Helel Son of the Morning". The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  42. ^ Wilken, Robert (2007). Isaiah: Interpreted by Early Christian and Medieval Commentators. Grand Rapids MI: Wm Eerdmans Publishing. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-8028-2581-0.
  43. ^ Gunkel expressly states that "the name Helel ben Shahar clearly states that it is a question of a nature myth. Morning Star, son of Dawn has a curious fate. He rushes gleaming up towards heaven, but never reaches the heights; the sunlight fades him away." (Schöpfung und Chaos, p. 133)
  44. ^ a b "Hebrew Concordance: hê·lêl – 1 Occurrence – Bible Suite". Bible Hub. Leesburg, Florida: Biblos.com. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  45. ^ a b Strong's Concordance, H1966
  46. ^ "LXX Isaiah 14" (in Greek). Septuagint.org. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  47. ^ "Greek OT (Septuagint/LXX): Isaiah 14" (in Greek). Bibledatabase.net. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  48. ^ "LXX Isaiah 14" (in Greek). Biblos.com. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  49. ^ "Septuagint Isaiah 14" (in Greek). Sacred Texts. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  50. ^ "Greek Septuagint (LXX) Isaiah – Chapter 14" (in Greek). Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  51. ^ Neil Forsyth (1989). The Old Enemy: Satan and the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-69101474-6. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  52. ^ Nwaocha Ogechukwu Friday (30 May 2012). The Devil: What Does He Look Like-. American Book Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-58982662-5. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  53. ^ a b Adelman, Rachel (2009). The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer and the Pseudepigrapha. Leiden: BRILL. p. 67. ISBN 978-9-00417049-0.
  54. ^ Taylor, Bernard A.; with word definitions by J. Lust; Eynikel, E.; Hauspie, K. (2009). Analytical lexicon to the Septuagint (Expanded ed.). Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. p. 256. ISBN 1-56563516-7.
  55. ^ Isaiah 14:3–4
  56. ^ Isaiah 14:12–17
  57. ^ a b Laney, J. Carl (1997). Answers to Tough Questions from Every Book of the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-82543094-7. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  58. ^ Isaiah 14:16
  59. ^ Carol J. Dempsey (2010). Isaiah: God's Poet of Light. Chalice Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-82721630-3. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  60. ^ a b c d Manley, Johanna; Manley, edited by Johanna (1995). Isaiah through the Ages. Menlo Park, Calif.: St Vladimir's Seminary Press. pp. 259–260. ISBN 978-0-96225363-8. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  61. ^ Breslauer, S. Daniel, ed. (1997). The seductiveness of Jewish myth : challenge or response-. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 280. ISBN 0-79143602-0.
  62. ^ Roy F. Melugin; Marvin Alan Sweeney (1996). New Visions of Isaiah. Sheffield: Continuum International. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-85075584-5. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  63. ^ Doorly, William J. (1992). Isaiah of Jerusalem. New York: Paulist Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-80913337-6. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  64. ^ Isaiah 14:18
  65. ^ Wolf, Herbert M. (1985). Interpreting Isaiah: The Suffering and Glory of the Messiah. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Academie Books. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-31039061-9.
  66. ^ Herzog, Schaff- (1909). Samuel MacAuley Jackson; Charles Colebrook Sherman; George William Gilmore (eds.). The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Thought: Chamier-Draendorf (Volume 3 ed.). USA: Funk & Wagnalls Co. p. 400. ISBN 1-42863183-6. Heylel (Isa. xiv. 12), the "day star, fallen from heaven," is interesting as an early instance of what, especially in pseudepigraphic literature, became a dominant conception, that of fallen angels.
  67. ^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm (1. paperback ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. pp. 148, 149. ISBN 0-82760797-0.
  68. ^ Adelman, Rachel (2009). pp. 61–62.
  69. ^ David L. Jeffrey (1992). A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. Eerdmans. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-80283634-2. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  70. ^ Berlin, Adele, ed. (2011). The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 978-0-19973004-9. The notion of Satan as the opponent of God and the chief evil figure in a panoply of demons seems to emerge in the Pseudepigrapha ... Satan's expanded role describes him as ... cast out of heaven as a fallen angel (a misinterpretation of Is 14.12)."
  71. ^ Sigve K Tonstad (20 January 2007). Saving God's Reputation. London, New York City: Continuum. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-56704494-5. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  72. ^ a b Link, Luther (1995). The Devil: A Mask without a Face. Clerkenwell, London: Reaktion Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-94846267-2.
  73. ^ Kelly, Joseph Francis (2002). The Problem of Evil in the Western Tradition. Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-81465104-9.
  74. ^ Auffarth, Christoph; Stuckenbruck, Loren T., eds. (2004). p. 62.
  75. ^ Fekkes, Jan (1994). Isaiah and Prophetic Traditions in the Book of Revelation. London, New York City: Continuum. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-85075456-5.
  76. ^ "Tertullian, ''Adversus Marcionem'', book 5, chapters 11 and 17 (Migne, ''Patrologia latina'', vol. 2, cols. 500 and 514)" (PDF) (in Latin). Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  77. ^ Jeffrey Burton Russell (1987). Satan: The Early Christian Tradition. Cornell University Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-80149413-0. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  78. ^ The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories. Merriam-Webster. 1991. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-87779603-9. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  79. ^ Harold Bloom (2005). Satan. Infobase Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-79108386-4. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  80. ^ Francis Andrew March, Latin Hymns with English Notes (Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Writers), vol. 1, p. 218: "Lucifer: God – Christ is here addressed as the true light bringer, in distinction from the planet Venus. Such etymological turns are common in the hymns. [...] This description of the King of Babylon was applied by Tertullian and others to Satan, and the mistake has led to the present meanings of Lucifer. See Webster's Dictionary."
  81. ^ Larry Alavezos (29 September 2010). A Primer on Salvation and Bible Prophecy. TEACH Services. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-57258640-6. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  82. ^ David W. Daniels (2003). Answers to Your Bible Version Questions. Chick Publications. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-75890507-9. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  83. ^ William Dembski (2009). The End of Christianity. B&H Publishing Group. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-80542743-1. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  84. ^ Cain, Andrew (2011). The fathers of the church. Jerome. Commentary on Galatians. Washington, D.C.: CUA Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-81320121-4.
  85. ^ Hoffmann, Tobias, ed. (2012). A Companion to Angels in Medieval Philosophy. Leiden: BRILL. p. 262. ISBN 978-9-00418346-9.
  86. ^ Nicolas (de Dijon) (1730). Prediche Quaresimali: Divise In Due Tomi, Volume 2 (in Italian). Storti. p. 230.
  87. ^ Corson, Ron (2008). "Who is Lucifer...or Satan misidentified". newprotestants.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  88. ^ Johanna Manley (1995). Isaiah through the Ages. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-96225363-8. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  89. ^ "Ésaïe 14:12–15" (in French). Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  90. ^ "Jesaja 14:12" (in German). Bibeltext.com. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  91. ^ "Isaías 14:12–17" (in Portuguese). Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  92. ^ "Isaías 14:12" (in Spanish). Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  93. ^ Calvin, John (2007). Commentary on Isaiah. I:404. Translated by John King. Charleston, S.C.: Forgotten Books.
  94. ^ Ridderbos, Jan (1985). The Bible Student’s Commentary: Isaiah. Translated by John Vriend. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Regency. p. 142.
  95. ^ Michael C. Thomsett Heresy in the Roman Catholic Church: A History McFarland 2011 ISBN 978-0-786-48539-0 page 71
  96. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 p. 745-755 and p. 831
  97. ^ Willis Barnstone, Marvin Meyer The Gnostic Bible: Revised and Expanded Edition Shambhala Publications 2009 ISBN 978-0-834-82414-0 p. 745-755 and p. 751
  98. ^ "Devils – Encyclopedia of Mormonism".
  99. ^ "D&C 76:25–29".
  100. ^ "D&C 10:27".
  101. ^ "Lucifer - lds.org".
  102. ^ "Isaiah 14:12, footnote c".
  103. ^ Charlesworth Vol.1 p. 405 Sibylline Oracles line 517 "Lucifer fought mounted on the back of Leo"
  104. ^ p. 567 Greek Apocalypse of Ezra Antichrist "the 'Lucifer' theme (4:32)
  105. ^ Anthony Maas, "Lucifer" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1910)
  106. ^ March, Francis Andrew Latin Hymns with English Notes, Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Writers. Vol.1 Latin Hymns. Notes p218 "Lucifer: God – Christ is here addressed as the true light bringer, in distinction from the planet Venus. Such etymological turns are common in the hymns. Lucifer is a familiar epithet of John the Baptist in the early church, as well as of the "Son of the morning," mentioned in Isaiah xiv., ... This description of the King of Babylon was applied by Tertullian and others to Satan, and the mistake has led to the present meanings of Lucifer. See Webster's Dictionary."
  107. ^ March Notes p224 "Lucifer: this the lovers of allegory interpreted of Christ, making John the Baptist the praeco."
  108. ^ March Notes p235 "For the use of Lucifer for Christ, see Hilary's hymn as above".
  109. ^ Mark Amsler, Etymology and Grammatical Discourse in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages (John Benjamins 1989) ISBN 978-9-02724527-4, p. 66
  110. ^ Michelle Belanger (2007). Vampires in Their Own Words: An Anthology of Vampire Voices. Llewellyn Worldwide. p. 175. ISBN 0-73871220-5.
  111. ^ Spence, L. (1993). An Encyclopedia of Occultism. Carol Publishing.
  112. ^ LaVey, Anton Szandor (1969). "The Book of Lucifer: The Enlightenment". The Satanic Bible. New York: Avon. ISBN 978-038001539-9.
  113. ^ "Adversarial Doctrine". Bible of the Adversary. Succubus Productions. 2007. p. 8.
  114. ^ "Lucifer, the Son of the Morning! Is it he who bears the Light, and with its splendors intolerable blinds feeble, sensual, or selfish Souls- Doubt it not!" (Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, p. 321). Much has been made of this quote (Masonic information: Lucifer).
  115. ^ "Leo Taxil's confession". Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 2 April 2001. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  116. ^ Freemasonry Disclosed April 1897
  117. ^ "Leo Taxil: The tale of the Pope and the Pornographer". Retrieved 14 September 2006.
  118. ^ a b c Magliocco, Sabina. (2009). Aradia in Sardinia: The Archaeology of a Folk Character. Pp. 40-60 in Ten Years of Triumph of the Moon. Hidden Publishing.
  119. ^ a b Charles G. Leland, Aradia: The Gospel of Witches, Theophania Publishing, US, 2010
  120. ^ Magliocco, Sabina. (2006). Italian American Stregheria and Wicca: Ethnic Ambivalence in American Neopaganism. Pp. 55-86 in Michael Strmiska, ed., Modern Paganism in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.

Further reading[edit]

  • Charlesworth, edited by James H. (2010). The Old Testament pseudepigrapha. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson. ISBN 1-59856-491-9.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • TBD; Elwell, Walter A.; Comfort, Philip W. (2001). Walter A. Elwell; Philip Wesley Comfort (eds.). Tyndale Bible Dictionary, Dayspring, Daystar. Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers. p. 363. ISBN 0842370897.
  • Campbell, Joseph (1972). Myths To Live By (Repr. 2nd ed.). [London]: Souvenir Press. ISBN 0-285-64731-8.

External links[edit]



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